The pancreas: PEI & PERT

THE NORMAL PANCREAS The human pancreas gland is pinkish tan in colour, 14-18cm long in adults, and weighs approximately 100g in adult males, 85g in adult females, and 5g in newborns. The organ is divided


WHAT IS IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME? IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder involving an abnormal condition of gut contractions and increased gut sensations. Common symptoms include stomach pain, gas, bloating, mucous in stools, and irregular bowel

Treating heartburn and hyperacidity with OTC PPIs

OTC medication options Advantages and disadvantages of OTC treatment options OTC PPIs Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce the amount of acid made by the stomach. They do this by irreversibly blocking the actions of an

Giving haemorrhoids the heave-ho

Haemorrhoids are collections of submucosal, fibrovascular, arteriovenous sinusoids that are part of the normal anorectum. The purpose of these ‘vascular cushions′ is incompletely understood, but they appear to be important for sensing fullness and pressure

GORD: relief & remission

WHAT IS GORD? “Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) occurs when the stomach content moves past your lower oesophageal sphincter (a set of constricting muscles that form a type of valve at the bottom end of your

Health benefits of probiotics

The number of studies currently being conducted on probiotics and the health benefits of their consumption is staggering. With experts at Yale University, Harvard Medical School, and the University of Chicago Medical Centre, to name

Probiotics: secret weapon against multidrug resistant bacteria?

Probiotics gets added to a wide range of products, including yogurt, chocolate, and potato chips. These live strains of yeast and bacteria can rebalance the bacterial flora naturally found in our gut, imparting a wealth

Probiotics a secret weapon against multidrug-resistant bacteria?

A new study investigating probiotics has concluded that regular use may reduce the need for antibiotics. Could this prove to be a secret weapon against the rise of antibiotic resistance?

Hepatitis C permanently damages NK cell diversity

New evidence published by a team from Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm suggests that hepatitis C infection affects the diversity of the body’s natural killer (NK) cells. Long thought to be a non-diverse lymphocyte group,

Mind over sphincter: brain-training GORD away

In days of yore, before the scientific revolution normalised abstract thinking, people would often locate the emotions they felt in parts of their body. Hence the ubiquity of objectively strange phrases like “cold feet”, “get

Probiotics impact on infantile FGIDs

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defined as a variable combination of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal

GORD: It’s all about control

There are a couple of major factors in GORD, one being a damaged lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) and another is overeating. Overeating can also damage the LOS. GORD is caused by the reflux of stomach