Guidelines: treating migraine in children

The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the American Headache Society have issued new guidelines on preventing and treating migraine in children. The guidelines, published in Neurology, update the AAN’s 2004 recommendations.

A brief overview of epilepsy and its pharmacological management

Status epilepticus is a medical emergency and should be managed in a clinical working environment. The pharmacist plays an important role in the education of PWE; dispensing of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and antiepileptic pharmaceutical care.

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Meditation for stress and hypertension

Mindfulness meditation has become increasingly popular in the last decade. In 2018 alone, 842 articles were published in academic journals, moving the practice from the domain of alternative and unscientific, into mainstream medicine, psychology, education and business.

ADHD in pre-schoolers

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally diagnosed around the age of seven or eight. But according to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), children as young as three can display symptoms of ADHD.

Insomnia: a pharmacist’s role

Insomnia can be treated non-pharmacologically, by providing guidance as to what good sleeping hygiene principals include, and pharmacologically with the use of OTC products, benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepines, barbiturates, sedating antidepressants (where there is an underlying depression component), and chloral hydrate.

Two new epilepsy self-management programmes

Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system and affects people of all ages, races and ethnic backgrounds. It affects one in every 100 people in South Africa.

What causes ADHD?

Despite the frequency with which ADHD is diagnosed, relatively little is known about the aetiology of this frequently debilitating condition. What we do know points to a conjunction of genes and environmental factors.

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The complexities of epilepsy management

Worldwide, more than 50 million people have epilepsy, making it one of the most common neurological diseases globally. Nearly 80% of people with epilepsy live in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the fact that epilepsy is a manageable disease, many people living in these countries face stigmatisation and discrimination due to cultural beliefs.

ADHD: A family affair

Research shows that genes play a vital role in the aetiology of ADHD, a childhood-onset condition with impairing symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Family, twin, and adoption studies show that ADHD’s heritability is between 74%‑80%.

Practical tips when switching meds

Managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a combination of the correct diagnosis and identifying all the comorbid conditions and factors that influence the clinical expression in an individual.

One size does not fit all ADHD patients

A common assumption is that ADHD is a modern occurrence. However, a case series of children presenting with the characteristic clinical features was published by the British paediatrician Sir George Still in The Lancet in 1902.

PD doesn’t always affect older people

One of the common misconceptions about Parkinson ’s disease (PD) is that it is associated with older age, while in fact, about 10%-20% of those diagnosed are under the age 50, and about half are below 40.

Blood pressure lowering and dementia

Scientists estimate that cases of dementia will triple between 2015 and 2050, due to an increasingly ageing population. They have calculated that about 5% of midlife modifiable causes of dementia is due to hypertension.

Key recommendations to guide MS treatment

Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic immune-mediated disease involving the white and gray matter of the central nervous system (CNS), mostly affect women. Prevalence vary from five to 50 per 100 000 people worldwide.

MSA: Something altogether different

Although multi-system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) will always be entwined, the former is increasingly being recognised as a separate entity with unique pathology, diagnostic hurdles, and nuanced treatment.

A world without Alzheimer’s

The first practice guidelines for the clinical evaluation of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) were released earlier this year by the American Alzheimer’s Association workgroup.

Multiple sclerosis 101

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects an estimated 30 people per 100 000 population. In South Africa this number is slightly higher at 32 people per 100 000 population.

Simple analgesics could prove effective in the management of tension headaches.

The pharmacist plays a very important role in the diagnosis and referral of patients presenting with headaches, dispensing of medications, and counselling of patients.

Technological advances in stroke care

This article is based on a presentation by Dr Derk Krieger at the 19th Annual SA Heart Congress held at Sun City (Northwest Province) from 4-7 October. Dr Krieger is a consultant neurologist.

NOACs herald new era in stroke prevention

This CPD examines the efficacy of NOACs for stroke prevention, as opposed to outdated and potentially dangerous treatments like warfarin.

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