Worldwide the prevalence of heart failure is rising. Prognosis is poor with symptomatic heart failure with yearly mortality rate of 6-7% in stable heart failure and 25% or more in patients admitted to hospital with acute heart failure.
The International Society of Hypertension (ISH) is currently writing new global hypertension guidelines to be published during the first half of 2020. The Southern African Hypertension Society will soon comment on the impact of lowered blood pressure threshold recommended by some international societies.
This is a new review topic addressing the overall concept of atherosclerosis and where we are at this moment in time in terms of pathogenetic concepts with an emphasis on inflammation and immunity.
The first position paper on the management of patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and left circulation embolism explores the available trial evidence and define the principles needed to guide decision-making.
MEDICAL CHRONICLE DECEMBER 2018 CPD 3 of 3: Recently the DECLARE trial was published evaluating in a randomised, double-blind, multinational, placebo- controlled trial, the effect of Dapagliflozin on safety and efficacy for macrovascular and microvascular outcomes.
Globally the prevalence of heart failure is about one in 25 of the general population with increasing prevalence with increasing age.