Women show markedly higher prevalence rates of major depression, dysthymia, generalised anxiety and panic disorders as well as social and specific phobias than men. Men, on the other hand, show higher prevalence rates of antisocial personality disorder and substance dependence.
Schizophrenia can be thought of as a group of chronic disorders that are often neuro-developmentally based and marked by progressive brain changes, tissue loss (both grey and white matter), and increases in ventricular volume that have been associated with functional impairment.
Clinicians are often asked to assess functional impairment in psychiatric patients for vocational, academic, or benefits-related purposes, but this is often no simple task.
A population study found mood lability in 38% of children with ADHD.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) defines depression as a heterogeneous disorder characterised by sadness, loss of interest or irritability. Depression ranges from mild to severe. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the more severe form.
A team of researchers, who collected data of 116 477 men and women, found that every type of antidepressant they studied was more effective at lessening symptoms of depression over time than placebo. They considered a drug ‘effective’ if it reduced depression symptoms by 50% or more.