What to do about hyperpigmentation?

Facial melanoses have always been cosmetically and psychologically disturbing to the patients. Despite great recent advancement in dermatology, treating facial melanoses remains a challenge to doctors and is equally frustrating for patients.

Topical treatment for onychomycosis

Nail fungal infections are the most common diseases of the nails, making up almost half of all nail abnormalities. Both fingernails and toenails are susceptible to infection, which usually appears as discolouration and thickening of the nail.

Link found between atopic dermatitis and salt

A team from the Technical University of Munich has demonstrated that salt leads to the formation of Th2 cells, immune cells active in allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis.

Delving deeper into basal cell carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, with a rapidly growing prevalence in countries with majority white populations. Even though a number of treatment strategies exist, only surgery and topical treatments provide an optimal outcome.

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CPD POINTS: 1

Xerosis: a focus on black skin

Doctors should provide evidence-based information about emollients for patients of African origin, since both hyperpigmentation and lichenification are different for black skin types than white or Asian skin types.

Identification and care of external genital warts

Genital warts are a symptom of certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and result in significantly reduced quality of life. A number of treatment options are available, but efficacy rates vary dramatically between treatments.

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CPD POINTS: 1

Banish fungal nail infections for good

Fungal nail infections, also referred to as onychomycosis, may affect one or more nails of the fingers or toes but most often involve the great toenail.

Treating acne

While acne should be treated actively to avoid unnecessary scarring and psychological distress, the choice of treatment is dependent on the severity of the presenting acne.

Alopecia during cancer treatment

Alopecia or baldness is a distressing problem to both males and females. Although hair loss is a given with certain forms of cancer treatment, there are treatments that can mitigate these effects.

How to identify an STI

It is not always easy for a medical practitioner to identify an STI on examination only and it is useful to understand the various dermatological presentations of STIs.

 

Solar keratoses

Actinic or solar keratoses are keratotic lesions occurring on chronically light-exposed adult skin. They represent focal areas of abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation that carry a low risk of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

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CPD POINTS: 1

Pigmentation and the sun

Excessive, unprotected exposure to solar radiation can lead to accelerated photo-ageing, carcinomas and disorders of skin pigmentation. Hyperpigmented lesions may be of aesthetic concern alone, or represent premalignant and malignant lesions.

Psoriasis can cause psychological stress

Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin condition. It is thought to be immune-mediated; however, genetic and environmental factors are aetiological contributors.

Breaking the barrier

A skin infection occurs when there is a breach in the skin barrier due to various causes, like injury, diseases, inoculation, warmth, humidity and poor hygiene.

Cosmetic utility of imiquimod in actinic keratosis

Actinic keratosis is one of the most common dermatological conditions, but current treatments are often not cosmetically optimal, with scarring and permanent hypo- or hyperpigmentation often a result.

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CPD POINTS: 1

Pathogenesis and origin of acne

MEDICAL CHRONICLE JULY 2018: CPD 2 of 4

Don’t leave actinic keratosis alone

Patients can reduce the risk of actinic keratoses by protecting their skin from the harmful effects of UV rays either from the sun or other sources like tanning beds.

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CPD POINTS: 3

MM in SA: New treatment guidelines

Although the SA guidelines for malignant melanoma (MM) was last updated in 2004, this is by no means due to the fact that nothing new has happened and we all treat melanomas the same way we used to more than a decade ago.

Sun protection

While sunlight has numerous benefits to human skin, the most important being vitamin D biosynthesis, excessive sun exposure may manifest with an array of skin conditions.  It is known to accelerate the signs of aging, cause sunburn and increase skin cancer risk.

Superficial fungal infections of the nails

Superficial fungal infections tend to infect the stratum corneum layer of the skin, the hair or the nails, causing various types of clinical symptoms, which can be very distressful to the patient