Antibiotic treatment for LRTIs: getting it right

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Empiric therapy is often based the choice of antibiotic treatment on antibacterial spectrum of the agent rather than on its pharmacological properties or the pathogen resistance profile.

When to do pertussis vaccination

Pertussis (whooping cough) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and continues to be a public health concern despite high vaccination coverage. The disease, caused by Bordetella pertussis, is endemic in all countries.

Inhaler education prevents exacerbations

As many as 90% of patients use their inhalers incorrectly. Incorrect technique is especially problematic in young children and elders. Asthma and COPD affect up to 10% of the population, and many individuals with these conditions have uncontrolled symptoms.

Smoking cessation in patients with pulmonary disease

Smoking cessation is possibly the single most important intervention for improving health and increasing life expectancy. Approximately 50% of smokers will die prematurely due to cigarette smoking unless they quit.

Tobacco kills 7 million people a year

The Global Forum on Human Rights and a Tobacco-Free World was recently held in Romania. Global leaders in health and human rights came together to highlight the ongoing tobacco epidemic. They discussed the creation of an actionable plan to end this epidemic.

Chlorhexidine for VAP

Ventilator‐associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections, especially among critically ill patients. While many doctors turn to antimicrobials to combat VAP, this is often irresponsible, given the efficacy of treatments such as chlorhexidine.

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GINA Guidelines 2018: What’s new?

The 2018 update of the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) incorporates new scientific information about asthma based on a review of recent scientific literature.

Airway management in the critically ill patient

The younger child has markedly reduced physiological reserves and so has potential for rapid deterioration towards decompensated cardiopulmonary failure and cardiac arrest, unless timeous and effective support occurs.

Ventilation: Lessons from ARDS

Daily, thousands of patients with respiratory failure are kept alive by mechanical ventilation (MV). Simultaneously, MV with positive pressure is unphysiological, and can traumatise lungs.

Can GOLD guidelines benefit low-income patients?

The Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy document has become the go-to guide for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Clinical relevance of small airway disease

The bronchial tree continuously divides down to the 23rd generation (division). One consequence of this division is that the mucosal surface area of the airways is relative larger in the distal lung than in the proximal lung. This may be important when dealing with an airway disease.

RTIs linked to asthma

An international study of 154 492 European children found that those who had had upper respiratory infections, such as colds, sinusitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and otitis, by the age of five years had a 1.5-fold increased risk of developing asthma in later life.

Cough treatment

These receptors generate information that reaches the central nervous system.

New agent for a poorly controlled condition

Asthma is common. In SA, it is estimated that 20% of adolescent children have asthma. And, despite the fact that the mortality from asthma is falling, individuals with asthma still have a significantly impaired quality of life.