Tapentadol knocks out pain

Tapentadol is the first analgesic to combine mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (NRI). The drug was approved

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Sprains and strains: An overview

Musculoskeletal pain affects the bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. It can be acute or chronic, localised in one area,

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Catching the red eye

Conjunctivitis, which is defined as inflammation of the bulbar and/or palpebral conjunctiva (the transparent lubricating mucous membrane that covers both

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Does GDPR apply to your patients?

Much like the South African Protection of Personal Information Act (POPI), The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is an international

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Cough treatment

Cough is reflex phenomenon occurring when sensitive receptors located in the larynx and upper airways are activated. These receptors generate

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What is the link between ADHD and emotional dysregulation?

It has long been recognised that emotion dysregulation is common in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Philip

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Medical Chronicle June CPDs

The June issue of Medical Chronicle, you will find 5 CPD articles, 4 clinical and 1 ethics. Click on the

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CPD POINTS: 3

Protein requirements & oral nutritional supplementation

The effect of disease related malnutrition can be detrimental on both physical and clinical health, leading to an increased length

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Probiotics impact on infantile FGIDs

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defined as a variable combination of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms not explained by structural

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Nutrition in pregnancy

Although, in the general population, a healthy balanced diet should largely obviate the need for vitamin and mineral supplementation, pregnancy,

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More to a healthy lifestyle than just healthy eating

South Africans are urged to make better lifestyle choices in addition to improving their eating habits, to achieve a healthy

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Herbs: Nature’s medicine

Also known as phytomedicine or botanical medicine, herbalism refers to the use of a plant’s seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark,

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Gastroenteritis 101

Gastroenteritis (also known as gastric flu, stomach flu, gastro, and stomach virus, although unrelated to influenza) is marked by inflammation

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Active ageing

“I mind my own business and I don’t eat junk food,” she said at her 113th birthday celebration! These were

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A metronomic approach to NSCLC

Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with cancer need to rethink the premise that toxicity and efficacy increase with

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CPD POINTS: 3

Metabolic surgery can have many health benefits

“In fact, metabolic surgery shows a high degree of success in assisting to resolve the medical conditions associated with obesity

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The 3 stages of HIV

When people get HIV and don’t receive treatment, they will typically progress through three stages of disease. Without treatment, people

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iNova launches Pholtex Plus

Pholtex Plus is an effective double action formulation to relieve a dry cough and a blocked nose 2; common complaints

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Nutrition for optimal digestive health

Understanding how to maintain your digestive health is not only empowering to know for your day to day comfort, but

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How to identify patients at imminent fracture risk

Preventing fractures is the primary objective of identifying and managing patients and osteoporosis. Prof Michael McClung, of the Oregon Osteoporosis

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How well do you know your eyes?

Good eyesight plays a pivotal role in patients’ wellbeing and is a significant factor in safety, retaining independence, and maintaining

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Odyssey Outcome trial: cure for atherosclerosis?

“With about 17 million people dying from cardiovascular disease each year, worldwide it’s still the biggest killer,” Prof Frederick Raal,

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When food is an addiction

Food addiction and its assessment The term “food addiction” has been described as an abnormal pattern of excessive consumption and

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CPD POINTS: 3

Why elderly people fall and how to prevent it

Currently there are no organised data collection in South Africa, which means that we don’t know the extent of the

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CPD POINTS: 2

Bridging the ‘silver tsunami’ gap

Despite the increase of fragility worldwide – also referred to as the silver tsunami – the number of people being

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New insulin reduces nocturnal hypoglycaemia

Speaking at the launch, Kerry Kalweit, a member of the International Diabetes Federation’s Young Leaders in Diabetes movement, said clinicians

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CPD POINTS: 3

Building a palliative care curriculum for oncologists

These statistics reflect the impact that cancer has on a healthcare system, but does not start to reflect the impact

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CPD POINTS: 3

Foam dressings a MUST in the wound care toolkit

It is estimated that one to three million elderly adults develop a PI each year, wrote Schessel et al. Approximately

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CPD POINTS: 3

Bisphosphonate treatment in osteoporosis

Osteoporosis affects an estimated 200 million women worldwide (approximately 1/10th of women aged 60, 1/5th of women aged 70, 2/5ths

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How to limit antibiotic use in acute sore throat

The most common cause of a sore throat (pharyngitis) is a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu.

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CPD POINTS: 3

Superficial basal cell carcinoma: A focus on Imiquimod

BCC can be classified into different histological sub-types according to their growth pattern. The different histological sub-types broadly distinguish between nodular,

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CPD POINTS: 3

BP control with current therapy

It has been shown that of those treated for hypertension, only 13% had their blood pressure (BP) controlled. There are

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TB in SA: Are you protected?

In response to this, TB infection prevention and control (IPC) measures are internationally recommended, including training on the mode of

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CPD POINTS: 3

The obese patient: health risks and medical options

The negative consequences of obesity have been quantified as exceeding those of either alcohol abuse or smoking. Obesity-associated comorbidities, including

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CPD POINTS: 3

A practical approach to oral and dermatological toxicities caused by anticancer therapies

  Pierre Fabre Laboratories South Africa recently hosted an event to educate dermatologists about the latest treatment options available for

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CPD POINTS: 3

Trazodone: a multifunctional drug

Increase in depression Future studies predict that depression will be the largest contributor to the disease burden in middle- and

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Treating depression: the drugs that work

“We were open to any result. This is why we can say this is the final answer to the controversy.”

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How to manage an HIV-positive patient

The Constitution also forms the basis of other legislation that details the application of these rights in the health care

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CPD POINTS: 3

Why bacterial vaginosis is all about balance

According to the Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, prevalence studies have shown that 30%-35% of patients with vaginitis present

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CPD POINTS: 3

Don’t leave actinic keratosis alone

Also known as a solar keratosis, the lesion enlarges slowly and usually causes no signs or symptoms other than a

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Discovery welcomes sugar tax

There are a number of reasons Discovery Vitality supports the Government’s proposed introduction of a sugar tax. In South Africa,

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Exploring anaemia

Causes  Iron deficiency occurs when the rate of loss or use of iron exceeds its rate of uptake and assimilation.

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Vitamin D deficiency “epidemic” can be reversed

The study further showed that 63% of Capetonians are deficient while Ascencao said an independent pilot study showed only two

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Osteoporosis isn’t inevitable

The best insurance against osteoporosis is building the highest bone density possible by ones 30s and minimising bone loss after

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STUDY: Probiotics and diarrhoea caused by antibiotics

“We found a clear beneficial effect of probiotics in preventing or treating antibiotic-associated diarrhoea,” said study co-author Sydne J. Newberry,

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Iron deficiency 101

Iron is vital for the production of red blood cells and is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide, both in

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Magnesium’s role in bone health

Results of retrospective studies indicate that dietary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus are below the recommended daily allowances for many populations.

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The benefits of bromelain

Bromelain is a complex mixture of protein-digesting enzymes isolated from pineapples, primarily the Queen Pineapple Ananas Cosmosus. Commercially available since the 1950s, bromelain

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A brave new world of genetic diagnosis and medicine

We now live in era of unparalleled knowledge of the molecular details of disease and this has led to powerful

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CPD POINTS: 3

Spider bites in SA: Identification and treatment

Spiders in SA can be divided into two groups: Neurotoxic and cytotoxic spiders. Neurotoxic spiders belong to the Lactrodectus genus

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PCOS: Perspectives from a South African infertility practice

The Rotterdam consensus expanded the criteria from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to include polycystic ovaries, introducing a number

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That sugar high

The management of diabetes is changing rapidly as new treatment options, technologies and the outputs of research continue to snowball.

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How to manage Dry Eye Syndrome with Hyaluronic Acid

Dry eye can make it more difficult to perform some activities, such as using a computer or reading for an

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CPD POINTS: 3

How to combat Vitamin deficiencies in oral contraceptive use

In private healthcare alone, 5.9 million packs of oral contraceptives (OCs) were sold in SA in 2016. This accounts for

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CPD POINTS: 3

Surgical site infections: What you need to know

Common microorganisms The most common microorganisms isolated from SSI patients are Staphylococcus aureus( aureus) Escherichia coli( coli) Enterococcusspp Klebsiella spp

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CPD POINTS: 3

How being overweight can affect fertility

The study found that weight loss following a lifestyle intervention improved conception rates among obese infertile women who experienced irregular

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Weighing in on metabolic syndrome

Dr Liana van Dyk, who practices as an integrative doctor in Centurion, Pretoria, explains that metabolic syndrome is a cluster

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Bacterial Vaginosis – why this common condition needs to be treated correctly

According to Dr Corne Brink, gynaecologist and obstetrician from Fourways Life Hospital in Johannesburg, 50%-75% of women with bacterial vaginosis

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Enter Entresto: A new era in the treatment of heart failure

There are at least two major issues of importance in the therapy of heart failure. These therapeutic issues are reduction

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CPD POINTS: 3

Combat winter ailments naturally with buchu

Painful joints – rheumatic disease Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are a family of illnesses that can cause inflammation in

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What’s causing your cough?

Viral vs bacterial Viral coughs are caused by viruses which inflame the throat or lungs and can last up to

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The plague that is cold sores

Symptoms Tingling and itching – Most people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips a while before

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Coughs give vital clues to pneumonia

Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are essential to prevent these unnecessary deaths. However, the reliable diagnosis of childhood pneumonia in

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Mouth ulcers 101

Causes of mouth ulcers The cause of mouth ulcers is unknown but it does tend to run in families. A

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New product launch: Dynaval

Dynaval is indicated for: Treatment of mild to moderate hypertension Improvement of survival following myocardial infarction Treatment of heart failure

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The answer to periconceptional folate intake?

Pregnant and lactating women are at increased risk of folic acid deficiency because generally their dietary folate is insufficient to

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SAD: Facing the winter blues

SAD is most common in autumn and winter, however some individuals experience it in the warmer months. Although SAD is

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Winter ailments

The common cold The common cold is a self-limited contagious illness that can be caused by a number of different

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Human rhinovirus infection

The primary cause of common colds, the American Academy of Paediatrics says rhinoviruses may also cause some sore throats, ear

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General management of colds and flu in children

The common cold The common cold can be caused by several viruses. Rhinoviruses, which include more than 100 serotypes, cause

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Don’t let your wheeze turn into a sneeze

According to Dr Anél Terblanche, no matter how healthy you are and how well you take care of yourself, there

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Don’t let hand rashes ruin winter

“There are many reasons for hand rashes,” said Melissa Piliang, MD, FAAD, a board-certified dermatologist at the Cleveland Clinic in

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Diabetics at greater risk of contracting flu

“Patients with diabetes may have abnormalities in immune function and presumed increased morbidity and mortality from infection,” the ADA says.

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Baby killer, ‘old man’s friend’

In 2011, 1.3 million children worldwide died unnecessarily as a result of pneumonia – this equates to between 120-150 children

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What to do about flu?

The number of people falling ill with flu is increasing and the hospitalisation rate — a predictor of the death

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Summer cold strikes back

Summer colds may take longer to shake and have a higher frequency of recurrence. They spread the same way as common cold viruses:

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General management of colds and flu in children

The common cold The common cold can be caused by several viruses. Rhinoviruses, which include more than 100 serotypes, cause

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CPD POINTS: 0

Hospital in the cloud

    Across all developing economies, both public and private sector healthcare professionals are grappling with the challenge of providing

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Cold & flu questions answered

When should I keep my child home from school? Parents should use their judgment when their child is feeling too

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Cold, flu or allergy?

Cold, flu, and allergy all affect your respiratory system, which can make it hard to breathe. Each condition has key symptoms

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Cold when it’s hot

Cause There are many viruses that can cause colds, sometimes seasonally and sometimes in epidemics. Up to 50% of colds

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Cold vs flu

Symptoms of influenza come on more quickly and are usually more severe than those of a cold. Weakness, fatigue, body

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Antibiotic use in treating URTIs

Supportive care is the foundation of treatment, but antiviral therapy, such as the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir, may decrease

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Knowledge leads to better outcomes

Burn Prevention Currently the most effective way to do low cost burn prevention is by education locally and at the

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A brief history about efficacy of NPWT

Rapid wound granulation Epithelialisation and contraction Reduction of dressing changes Reduced infection risk Reduced treatment costs Control of exudate Concurrent

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Burns Awareness Month

Burns are the most common external cause of death in children younger than four years  and mortality from burns in

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Wound assessment crucial to effective treatment

Keep in mind that assessing a chronic wound can be challenging. Wound location Note the precise anatomic location of the

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The superficial partial thickness burn and Sorbact

Sorbact® although not a skin substitute behaves similarly to a skin substitute and at a much lower cost. It is

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First aid for minor burns

In South Africa, burns are the greatest cause of unnatural death among children under age five. Burns commonly result from

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Burns: basic first aid

There are 3 degrees of burns: First-degree burns The least serious burns are those where only the outer layer of

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Fast burn treatment decreases mortality

The WHO recommends the following: During the initial treatment stage, burns must be sterilised to encourage speedy healing and to

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Burns: The long term

The strategies to limit the progression of hypertrophic scarring are scar massage, compression garments, topical silicone, steroid injections, serial casting

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Burns: The first 24 hours

Unrelieved pain is thought to contribute to long-term sensory problems, including chronic pain, paraesthesia and dyesthaesia, as well as debilitating

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Burns: The first 24 hours

Silver sulphadiazine has been consistently associated with poorer healing outcomes compared to biosynthetic, silicon-coated and silver dressings. With the emergence

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Think Again

“Globally, burns are a serious public health problem. An estimated 265 000 deaths occur each year from fires alone, with

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CPD POINTS: 3

Pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis

“Because of the morbid consequences of osteoporosis, the prevention of this disease and its associated fractures is considered essential to

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CPD POINTS: 3

MM in SA: New treatment guidelines

“The last time treatment guidelines for Malignant Melanoma (MM) were published in South Africa was in 2004 (even the Australian

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CPD POINTS: 3

PPIs and vitamin, mineral deficiencies

GORD causes symptoms such as heartburn and an unpleasant taste in the back of the mouth. It may just be

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CPD POINTS: 3

AOMT and its treatment

Diagnostic criteria for AOM AOM is defined as an acute upper respiratory tract infection, affecting one or both ears (often

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CPD POINTS: 3

SA’s first Methylphenidate ER generic

Contramyl XR will be available from December in 18 mg, 27 mg, 36 mg and 54 mg strengths, for the

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CPD POINTS: 0

The fight against HIV

In South Africa, an estimated 5.5 million people have been infected with the virus and the country has the biggest

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CPD POINTS: 3

Real world outcomes: treat and extend studies

Definition According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition affecting older people, and involves

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CPD POINTS: 3

Clinical relevance of small airway disease

Disease in this zone often is advanced before diagnosis and examples of disease that also affect small airways are asthma

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CPD POINTS: 3

MSD announces local regulatory approval of new oncology drug

In recognising the impact that Pembrolizumab would have in oncology treatment, MSD received regulatory approval by the Medicines Control Council

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CPD POINTS: 0

Why do antibiotics fail in Strep A infections?

At present, many studies support the hypothesis that the intracellular niche may protect group A Streptococcus from penicillin, which does

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Pharyngitis vs laryngitis

There are a number of possible causes. Pharyngitis can be bacterial or viral in origin, and it is not always

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Sore throats: Are antibiotics always the answer?

In the definition of acute pharyngitis, a spectrum exists from diffuse pharyngeal inflammation to inflammation of the tonsils. The two

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CPD POINTS: 0

A first for southern Africa: HSRC MSM study

HIV risk and transmission among male-male partnerships continues to be inadequately studied in many countries and under-represented in national HIV

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CPD POINTS: 0

Personalise diet, fertility and medication with genetic testing

Body basics For most of people, working out the exercise and diet best suited to them is a guessing game.

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CPD POINTS: 0

Same same, but different

Biochemical pharmacologist, Professor Collen Masimirembwa, suggests a closer look at human genetics might be one way to improve ARV therapy.

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Genetics… the future of healthcare and medicine

Essentially, genetic testing and screening is used as a tool to detect the gene variants associated with a specific disease

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Polygenic risk scores can identify patients who will benefit most from statin therapy

The question is if it can be shown that there is a specific subgroup of patients that may benefit more

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CPD POINTS: 0

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Indicators

B12 is essential for the metabolism of all human cells and is required for two key reactions: MUT reaction: energy

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CPD POINTS: 3

Safety, efficacy of Biosimilar human insulins

Estimates from 2015 by the International Diabetes Federation suggest that the number of adults with diabetes in the world will

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CPD POINTS: 3

Take it till you make it

According to the authors, “Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory condition that can affect multiple organs, but which is

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CPD POINTS: 3

Not so hot

“Patients with GORD may also experience significant complications associated with the disease, such as oesophagitis, stricture, and Barrett oesophagus. Approximately

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CPD POINTS: 3

The Role of Vit D and Zinc in BP control

Approximately 13% of deaths overall are caused by high blood pressure, while 40% of deaths in people with diabetes are

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CPD POINTS: 3

Getting a grip on Gastroenteritis

Diarrhoea is a common problem that can affect anyone at any age. Causes Viruses The viruses most commonly implicated are

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CPD POINTS: 3

Achieving glycaemic control

“This alarming rate of increase in incidence together with the potential complications of disease renders this disease to be a

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CPD POINTS: 3

Postoperative pain: a psychological assessement

An effective postoperative management is not a standardised regime and is rather tailored to the needs of the individual patient,

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CPD POINTS: 3

The treatment of asthma

Implementing treatment for chronic asthma Avoidance of triggers, wherever possible, helps to minimise asthma severity and reduces asthma exacerbations. This

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CPD POINTS: 3

Management of conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis has a number of different causes, including: Viruses Bacteria Irritants such as shampoos, dirt, smoke, and pool chlorine Allergiens

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CPD POINTS: 3

A new era in the management of type 2 Diabetes

Globally, the obesity and diabetes pandemics are driving the increase in macrovascular complications, with ischaemic heart disease and stroke the

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CPD POINTS: 3

Hyluronans and Molecilar weight

However, it has become clear that mechanisms of action for osteoarthritis pain management are not only mechanical but also biological.

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CPD POINTS: 3

Review of once-monthly oral ibandronate

Risedronate (5mg daily) – The Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT-NA and VERT-International) studies which demonstrated vertebral fracture efficacy. The

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CPD POINTS: 3

Sanofi launches new once-daily oral treatment for RRMS

Since 2005, ten clinical trials involving more than 4000 patients have been conducted. Since then, Aubagio has been approved for

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CPD POINTS: 3

Codeine Care Initiative

In the performance of its duties, the MCC applies the guidelines set out by the Medicines and Related Substances Act,

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CPD POINTS: 3

PAIN: A sensory and emotional experience

They can be divided into two main groups which describe the presenting symptoms (although these can overlap and one may

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CPD POINTS: 3

Antihistamine that tackles inflammation

Histamine is clearly not the only mediator involved in the inflammatory process. There is an emerging view that drugs that

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CPD POINTS: 3

Surviving the rollercoaster: adult ADHD

Drs Renata Schoeman and Rykie Liebenberg of the South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP) Special Interest Group (SIG) for adult

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CPD POINTS: 3

OST reduces risk of HIV infection

Cohen et al showed that the introduction of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) was associated with a 97% lower risk of

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CPD POINTS: 3

Burning Issue

At its best, this is a self-contained interdisciplinary environment with dedicated, isolated beds, sub-specialist surgeons, supported by an interdisciplinary team

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CPD POINTS: 3

Vitamin B deficiencies and treatment

Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential for normal physiological functions and the maintenance of optimal health. They cannot be

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CPD POINTS: 3

Sun protection

Fifty percent of solar radiation is Infrared in the form of heat energy and is perceived as warmth.  Even a single

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CPD POINTS: 3

Multiple MoA

Allergic conjunctivitis is caused by airborne allergens contacting the eye, which leads to immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated local mast cell degranulation

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CPD POINTS: 3

Hot and bothered

“Treatment should be individualised to identify the most appropriate HT type, dose, formulation, route of administration, and duration of use,

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CPD POINTS: 3

Rare but there

Male breast cancer accounts for only 0.7% of all breast cancer diagnoses. The mean age at diagnosis for men with

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CPD POINTS: 3

How effective is the LNG-IUS in relieving chronic pelvic pain caused by AM?

The definition of AM is characterised by the presence of heterotopic endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium, >2.5mm in

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CPD POINTS: 0

Women’s hearts

Premature deaths caused by heart and blood vessel diseases (CVD) in people of working age (35-64 years) are expected to

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CPD POINTS: 0

Clinical Update: Erectile Dysfunction

Peripherally acting agents Oral phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors The PDE-5 inhibitors remain the first choice therapy in most patients with erectile

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CPD POINTS: 0

Managing a monster

It is not surprising that 415 million people are estimated to have diabetes in the world and WHO predicts that

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CPD POINTS: 3

Risk of sudden death in heart failure

Current recommended treatment for heart failure: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-Inhibitors) or Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), beta-blockers (Carvedilol, Bisoprolol and Metoprolol) and

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CPD POINTS: 0

Vaginal infections: An overview

Three common infections are associated with vaginal discharge: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomoniasis and candidiasis, of which trichomoniasis is a sexually

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CPD POINTS: 3

Issues in hypertension

Hypertension increases the risk for coronary heart disease by two-fold and the risk for heart failure and stroke by four-fold.

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CPD POINTS: 0

What is the impact on CVD outcome of non-adherence?

Prof. James Ker, Senior Lecturer, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pretoria As measured over the last two decades, the

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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction has shown improved outcomes with evidence-based treatment but heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

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CPD POINTS: 0

A first for SA

Spec Etoricoxib is indicated for the acute use for short-term relief of acute gouty arthritis, acute pain, primary dysmenorrhea and

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CPD POINTS: 0

Stable angina pectoris

Basic concept Ischaemic heart disease refers to a state in which there is inadequate blood supply (oxygen) to a portion

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CPD POINTS: 0

RTIs linked to asthma

An international study of 154 492 European children found that those who had had upper respiratory infections, such as colds,

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CPD POINTS: 0

Advances in IBS

IBS also represents a major burden in terms of patient quality of life, work productivity, and healthcare costs. Considerable advances

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CPD POINTS: 0

COCs: Impact of oestrogen type on CV safety

As combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have been further developed over the past decades, their ethinylestradiol (EE) content has been reduced.

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CPD POINTS: 3

Weight gain studied for second-generation antipsychotics

The Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center study found that patients treated with Zyprexa (olanzapine) have the highest risk of weight

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CPD POINTS: 0

Cough treatment

These receptors generate information that reaches the central nervous system. The central organisation of cough reflex loop is poorly understood.

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CPD POINTS: 0

Antibiotics or watchful waiting?

More than 20% of antibiotics prescribed in adults are for sinusitis or rhinosinusitis, making it the fifth most common diagnosis

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CPD POINTS: 0

Advances in the pharmacological treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel problem that mostly affects younger individuals, mostly women (a 2:1 female

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CPD POINTS: 0

Gut health

These are usually dealt with symptomatically with drugs that can reduce the discomfort for the patient despite the fact that

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CPD POINTS: 0

Avoiding litigation: It’s not child’s play

There has been a dramatic increase in medical litigation in recent years. Those practicing in specialties considered high risk such

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CPD POINTS: 0

Brain-gut axis is real

IBS is defined as chronic abdominal symptoms of bloating, altered bowel habit and cramping pain arising from the colon but

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CPD POINTS: 0

Adult rhinosinusitis

Rhinosinusitis is a common condition, which affects about 30% of the population at some point. Of this number, about 1% develop

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CPD POINTS: 0

Battling bacterial conjunctivitis

Bacterial  conjunctivitis is inflammation  of  the  conjunctiva  caused by direct  contact with infected secretions. The most common organisms are Staphylococcus

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CPD POINTS: 3

Be SMART about diabetes care

According to Distiller et al, who focusses on the SA cohort that forms part of the International Diabetes Management Practice

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CPD POINTS: 3

Pause for thought

The details were published Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). A study of 749 Brazilian women

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CPD POINTS: 3

A nauseating feeling

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in the quality of life.  In the past two

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CPD POINTS: 3

Advances in Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterised by chronic intermittent abdominal pain and associated diarrhoea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), or both. IBS

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CPD POINTS: 0

Managing neovascular AMD

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been described as the leading cause of legal blindness, affecting 10%-13% of adults over 65

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CPD POINTS: 0

Ocular Allergies: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

Although not vision-threatening, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis accounts for a significant amount of patient morbidity, discomfort, and cosmetic concern. The antigens

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CPD POINTS: 3

Medicinal use of Pelargonium sidoides

Pelargonium sidoides is an important traditional medicine with a rich ethnobotanical history. The importance of Pelargonium species, most notably Pelargonium

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CPD POINTS: 3

Manifestations of the metabolic syndrome: Part 1

The metabolic syndrome (Met-S) is a concept that has evolved over the past 20 years, describing a complex combination of metabolic,

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CPD POINTS: 0

Myofascial pain syndrome on the increase

MFTPs are categorised clinically dependent on their type. There are two types of MFTPs – active and latent (Travell and

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CPD POINTS: 0

Importance of adherence to treatment

The global prevalence of T2DM among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5%

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CPD POINTS: 0

SMART diabetes care

Diabetes has become a leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, blood glucose monitoring combined

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CPD POINTS: 0

PPIs for NSAIDs induced gastropathy

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) constitute a well-known group of drugs that are most widely used for a variety of inflammatory

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CPD POINTS: 0

Burden of HIV-associated Cryptococcal meningitis

Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates of national, regional,

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CPD POINTS: 3

Basic airway management course

The course was planned and organized by Dr Joyce Baloyi, Dr Noneka Cangas, Dr Grace Machinima and Dr Melody Ledwaba,

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CPD POINTS: 0

Superficial fungal infections of the nails

Aetiology and prevalence There are many diseases that can afflict the nails causing them to become unsightly. Of those diseases,

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CPD POINTS: 0

The big bong theory

Cannabis has been around for centuries. It most likely originated in the mountains of Kazakhstan from where it spread via

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CPD POINTS: 0

Clinical and ethical considerations for terminal cancer patients

When decisions arise concerning the treatment of dying patients, these options present complex clinical and ethical dilemmas. Many are faced

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CPD POINTS: 0

The role of N2O in clinical practice

Minimal sedation and anxiolysis: A drug-induced state during which the patient responds normally to verbal commands.Cognitive function and physical coordination

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CPD POINTS: 0

Moving IBD care into the 21st century

IBD care is often fragmented, poorly coordinated and determined by forces beyond the control of patients and their doctors. IBD

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CPD POINTS: 0

Post-stroke pain

Post-stroke pain is common. It remains under diagnosed and undertreated. Post-stroke pain is associated with depression, cognitive dysfunction and an

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CPD POINTS: 0

SASA regional anaesthesia guideline

Major regional analgesia may be initiated for pain management alone including in labour or in the perioperative setting. In certain

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CPD POINTS: 0

Rapid access protocol

The findings of their study was presented at the US Association of Academic Physiatrists Annual Meeting hosted in Las Vegas

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CPD POINTS: 0

Manifestations of the metabolic syndrome: part 2

Focusing in on certain core aspects of this complex pathophysiology, Prof R DeFronzo stated that there are eight factors that

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CPD POINTS: 0

Enhancement of fluoxetine by folic acid

For this reason, a randomised, double-blind study recently sought to evaluate whether the co-administration of folic acid would enhance the

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CPD POINTS: 3

The right vitamins for osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a common disease characterised by low bone strength that results    in an increased risk of fracture. In

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CPD POINTS: 3

The importance of a balanced immune system

When out of balance, the immune system not only fails to protect the body but can even attack it, mistaking

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CPD POINTS: 3

Bacterial conjunctivitis: Making every drop count

Conjunctivitis is estimated to contribute 1% of ophthalmic problems or disorders seen in primary care setting, and 1 – 4%

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CPD POINTS: 0

New agent for a poorly controlled condition

Asthma is common. In SA, it is estimated that 20% of adolescent children have asthma. And, despite the fact that

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CPD POINTS: 3

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