Proper management of diabetic foot ulcers is an essential but often overlooked component of diabetic wound care. Wound dressing technology is constantly advancing and there is no reason why diabetics should suffer complications resulting from ulceration or even amputation as a result of their condition.
A population study found mood lability in 38% of children with ADHD.
The effect of disease related malnutrition can be detrimental on physical & clinical health.
WHO estimate NCDs linked to lifestyle choices kill about 16 million people prematurely worldwide annually.
Recent fragility fracture is a powerful predictor of imminent risk of fracture.
At the recent National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA) Congress, held from 16 – 18 March in Cape Town, Prof Brent Tipping of the University of the Witwatersrand and Dr Zane Stevens of Stellenbosch University shared their valuable real-world experiences.
Palliative care improves patients facing life threatening illness quality of life through the prevention and the relief of suffering by means of biopsychosocial and spiritual care.
Basal-cell carcinomas constitute approximately 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers.
Obesity is a global health problem. The obesity epidemic has been growing in developed nations, and has spread to developing nations.
Advances in the treatment of potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer, are often accompanied by side effects, which can severely affect patients’ quality of life (QOL). As a result, some patients discontinue treatment.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) defines depression as a heterogeneous disorder characterised by sadness, loss of interest or irritability. Depression ranges from mild to severe. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the more severe form.
A team of researchers, who collected data of 116 477 men and women, found that every type of antidepressant they studied was more effective at lessening symptoms of depression over time than placebo. They considered a drug ‘effective’ if it reduced depression symptoms by 50% or more.
Bacterial vaginosis, an imbalance in vaginal flora characterised by low levels of lactobacilli and an increased frequency of facultatively anaerobic bacteria, is one of the most common reproductive tract infections in women globally.
Ascencao was responding to a recent international study which found Cape Town residents, in particular, were at risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter when UVB exposure from sunlight was extremely low, making it harder to fight disease and infection. The study said vitamin D supplementation may reverse deficiency and even slow down HIV infection.
A Rand Corporation study found that taking probiotics can reduce the risk of developing the diarrhoea that is a common side effect of taking antibiotics.
Just over sixty years ago James Watson, Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin unravelled the mysteries of our genetic code through the discovery of DNA.
A Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) label might not be needed to effectively treat many symptoms of PCOS, as the label may not change the type or intensity of the intervention.
Dry eye occurs when the eye does not produce tears properly, or when the tears are not of the correct consistency and evaporate too quickly.
Contraception is one of the most powerful public health tools for any country. However, there is an unmet treatment need.
A weight loss of as little as 5%-10% can improve a woman’s chance of falling pregnant. In fact, in the world’s first comprehensive study on weight and its effect on fertility, researchers found that losing even 5% can have a significant effect on a woman’s chances of conceiving.
Bacterial Vaginosis, defined as an imbalance in vaginal flora characterised by low levels of lactobacilli and an increased frequency of facultatively anaerobic bacteria, is one of the most common reproductive tract infections in women globally.
Globally the prevalence of heart failure is about one in 25 of the general population with increasing prevalence with increasing age.
Thermal damage to the skin that just breaches the dermis but leaves many islands of basal epithelial cells intact is named a partial thickness burn. Due to the multitude of these islands, re-epithelialisation occurs within 7-14 days and the largely intact dermis means the scar is of good quality. This is the natural history of a truly superficial partial thickness burn.
Burns are a global public health problem, accounting for an estimated 265 000 deaths annually. A burn is an injury to the skin or other organic tissue primarily caused by heat or due to radiation, radioactivity, electricity, friction, or contact with chemicals.
Burns destroy skin, which controls the amount of heat our bodies retain or release, holds in fluids and protects us from infection. While minor burns on fingers and hands are usually not dangerous, burns injuring even relatively small areas of skin can cause serious complications.
It is imperative to understand the depth of the burn wound. A partial thickness wound will heal spontaneously. The most appropriate dressing choice is one that can be applied as a single application and is only removed once epithelialisation is complete.
A study by Emma Gee Kee et al, Randomised controlled trial of three burns dressings for partial thickness burns in children published in Burns (2015), compared the effects of three silver dressing combinations on small to medium size acute partial thickness burns in children, focusing on reepithelialisation time, pain and distress during dressing changes.
The prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms (GORS) is on the rise. Ness-Jensen et al (2011) showed an increase in the prevalence of GORS measured over a decade. Any GORD symptoms increased by 30%, severe GORD symptoms increased by 24% and weekly GORD symptoms increased by 47%.
The bronchial tree continuously divides down to the 23rd generation (division). One consequence of this division is that the mucosal surface area of the airways is relative larger in the distal lung than in the proximal lung. This may be important when dealing with an airway disease.
In recognising the impact that Pembrolizumab would have in oncology treatment, MSD received regulatory approval by the Medicines Control Council (now South African Health Products Regulatory Authority) in South Africa.
Understanding your DNA means better healthcare, minimising risk and knowing what the future holds.
Genetic profiling approach will enable medical professionals to quickly find the best combination of ARVs for the patient and avoid costly trial and error. It will reduce the risk of unnecessary adverse drug reactions as result of incompatibility with the patient’s genetic profile.
Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide on a yearly basis. Statin therapy reduces the risk of a first myocardial infarction.
Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) affects people worldwide and poses major public health and socio-economic challenges. The disorder was previously thought to be rare or undocumented in rural Africa, but over the past few decades it has emerged as an important non-communicable disease (NCD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects about three in every 100 000 people in SA. The good news is that Aubagio (teriflumonide), an affordable, novel, immunomodulatory, disease-modifying oral drug with anti-inflammatory properties, is now available in the country.
Histamine is clearly not the only mediator involved in the inflammatory process. There is an emerging view that drugs that can inhibit a broader range of inflammatory agents may prove to be more effective in providing symptomatic relief in both allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria.
While sunlight has numerous benefits to human skin, the most important being vitamin D biosynthesis, excessive sun exposure may manifest with an array of skin conditions. It is known to accelerate the signs of aging, cause sunburn and increase skin cancer risk.
The definition of AM is characterised by the presence of heterotopic endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium, >2.5mm in depth in the myometrium or more than one microscopic field at 10 times magnification from the endometrium–myometrium junction and a variable degree of adjacent myometrial hyperplasia.
Current recommended treatment for heart failure: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-Inhibitors) or Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), beta-blockers (Carvedilol, Bisoprolol and Metoprolol) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.
As measured over the last two decades, the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has declined by about 50% and at least half of this decline has been attributed to the use of evidence-based medication.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction has shown improved outcomes with evidence-based treatment but heart failure with preserved ejection fraction has not shown any improved outcomes with treatment demonstrating our lack of effective therapies for this condition.
An international study of 154 492 European children found that those who had had upper respiratory infections, such as colds, sinusitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and otitis, by the age of five years had a 1.5-fold increased risk of developing asthma in later life.
The Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center study found that patients treated with Zyprexa (olanzapine) have the highest risk of weight gain, while Geodon (ziprasidone) and Seroquel (quetiapine) were not associated with an increase in body mass index.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel problem that mostly affects younger individuals, mostly women (a 2:1 female predominance in the western world) and patients with other functional gastrointestinal problems.
Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates of national, regional, and global burden of cryptococcal meningitis are crucial to guide prevention strategies and identify needs for diagnostic tests, antifungal medicines, and medical supplies, such as lumbar puncture needles and manometers.
Continuing on from Manifestations of the Metabolic Syndrome: Part 1, which appeared in the February issue of Medical Chronicle, which was all about diagnostic numbers, we look further at pathophysiology, progression, clinical presentations, prevention and practical management of the metabolic syndrome (Met-S).