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Approximately 40% of cigarette smokers will die prematurely unless they can quit smoking. The relative ratio (relative risk) of smoking-related cardiovascular disease rates is greater in younger persons than in older persons, particularly for coronary artery disease and stroke. For instance, for coronary artery disease the relative risk at ages 35-64 is 2.8 for men and 3.1 for women while for the ages above 65 years the relative risk is 1.5 for males and 1.6 for women.

Developments in antivenoms have helped to reduce mortality rates from snakebites in remote areas. The first commercial antivenom was developed by Dr Albert Calmette in 1893 and was used successfully in 1895 to save the life of a person that was bitten by a cobra.

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