Breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a secondary form of lymphoedema and a major complication of post-breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy. It occurs when the network of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes is damaged by disease, surgery or radiotherapy. The lymph, a protein-rich fluid, then accumulates in the tissue spaces, which is clinically manifested by swelling of the upper limb on the affected side. Sometimes the chest and breast areas may also be affected.[1,2]
Classification and symptoms
Lymphoedema can be...