Heart failure is a syndrome with symptoms (such as dyspnoea, fatigue and swelling of the lower limbs), signs (such as raised jugular venous pressure, displaced apex beat, crackles in the lung and gallop rhythm) together with evidence of abnormal myocardial performance and structural and functional abnormalities. This leads to elevated intra cardiac pressures or reduced cardiac output at rest or with exercise.


Multiple studies in an increasing number of publications have shown the benefits of sustained blood pressure control.

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