Approximately 40% of cigarette smokers will die prematurely unless they can quit smoking. The relative ratio (relative risk) of smoking-related cardiovascular disease rates is greater in younger persons than in older persons, particularly for coronary artery disease and stroke. For instance, for coronary artery disease the relative risk at ages 35-64 is 2.8 for men and 3.1 for women while for the ages above 65 years the relative risk is 1.5 for males and 1.6 for women.


E-cigarettes are promoted as a smoking cessation device and less dangerous way to self-administer nicotine than conventional cigarettes, but e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes have similar effects on endothelial function which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

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