Pain and attempts to alleviate it have always been part of human experience, and yet a complete grasp of its causes, functions, and consequences has proven elusive. Despite the technological advancements of last decade, the neurological signature of pain, and the transition from acute to chronic pain is still unclear. Biological theories, even very sophisticated ones, have failed to account for individual differences in pain behaviours, and the propensity to develop chronic pain. In addition, the extant literature on brain imaging in chronic back pain suggests that its neural signature more closely resembles that of emotion processing than that of acute pain.

Research demonstrates that multimodal analgesia not only reduces pain, opioid use, and opioid-related adverse effects, but also enhances postoperative recovery and function, and increases patient satisfaction [Image: Shutterstock].

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