Besides E. coli, other Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also cultured in patients with urological diseases. Microbial resistance is developing at an alarming rate with country-specific resistance rates related to the amount of antibiotics used. Particularly of concern is the increasing resistance to broad spectrum antibiotics. It is thus essential to limit the use of antibiotics in general and fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins in particular, especially in uncomplicated infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria.

In uncomplicated UTIS, the goals of pharmacotherapy are to eradicate the infection, prevent complications, and provide symptomatic relief to patients. Early treatment is recommended to reduce the risk of progression to pyelonephritis.

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