Research shows that genes play a vital role in the aetiology of ADHD, a childhood-onset condition with impairing symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Family, twin, and adoption studies show that ADHD’s heritability is between 74%‑80%.

Although ADHD is recognised as a chronic condition by most countries, the Council for Medical Schemes (CMS) does not list ADHD as a chronic disease or a prescribed minimum benefit.

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