Epilepsy is a brain disorder that is caused by sudden unsynchronized neuron signaling causing symptoms or signs that are either apparent to the person or to an observer. This may be characterized by periodic loss of consciousness with/without convulsions. The term “epileptic” is no longer in use, and is now referred to as “people with epilepsy” (PWE). Seizures can be either focal, generalized or of unknown origin. These different types of seizures are characterized by different presentations and level of consciousness.

People with epilepsy should be provided with advice such as leaving the bathroom door unlocked, taking a shower instead of a bath, avoiding stroke lightning where there is evidence of EEG-epilepsy, avoiding sleep deprivation and the excessive use of alcohol and recreational drugs.

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